mycotoxins

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Mycotoxins

Mycotoxins are found in almost all kinds of animal feeds and foods, such as cereals, wheat bran, pasta, pea shells and corn kernels, milk, and the like. Molds like to live in warm and humid environments, and are capable of growing on or inside food before and after harvesting . Because most of them are chemically stable, they are difficult to remove during food processing. The most common mycotoxins that are harmful to human and livestock health are aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, fumonisin, zearalenone, deoxynivalenol and so on. Although goverment have established international standards and practices for mycotoxin exposure in food, mycotoxins contamination is still a worldwide food safety issue of concern.

In this situation, Elabscience® has developed high-quality testing kits to detect common mycotoxins for researchers and farmers, including ELISA kits and rapid test kits (Lateral Flow Assay Kit).

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Residues and Contaminants

Category of Mycotoxins

Total Aflatoxin

Total Aflatoxin

The Aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1, G2, M1, M2) are a group of structurally related, extremely toxic compounds produced by the moulds Aspergillus flavus, A. paraciticus and A. nomius.

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Aflatoxin B1

Aflatoxin B1

Aflatoxin B1 is produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. It is the most hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic of the aflatoxins and occurs as a contaminant in a variety of foods.

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Aflatoxin M1

Aflatoxin M1

Aflatoxin M1 is a hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1, secreted in milk of mammals receiving aflatoxin B1. It is associated with carcinogenicity, genotoxicity, mutagenicity, and teratogenicity.

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Fumonisin B1

Fumonisin B1

Fumonisin B1 is a mycotoxin produced from F. moniliforme, a prevalent fungus of corn and other grains. It induces a pulmonary edema syndrome in pigs and a hepatotoxicity in horses and swine.

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Ochratoxin A

OTA_Ochratoxin A

Ochratoxin A is one of the most deleterious mycotoxins including nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, embryotoxic, teratogenic, neurotoxic, immunotoxic, genotoxic, and carcinogenic.

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T-2 Toxin

T-2 Toxin

T-2 Toxin is a potent mycotoxin produced in feedstuffs by several species of the genus FUSARIUM. It elicits a severe inflammatory reaction in animals and has teratogenic effects.

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Deoxynivalenol

Deoxynivalenol

Deoxynivalenol (vomitoxin) is a sesquiterpene compound found in Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum. It is a potent central emetic, to which pigs are very sensitive and ruminants more resistant.

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Zearalenone

Zearalenone

Zearalenone, also known as RAL and F-2 mycotoxin, is a potent estrogenic metabolite produced by some Fusarium and Gibberella species which can infest crops.

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Factors Affecting Mycotoxin Occurrence in the Food and Feed Chain

KEY FACTS

1.Some natural toxins can be formed in food as defense mechanisms of plants, through their infestation with toxin-producing mould, or through ingestion by animals of toxin-producing microorganisms.

2.Natural toxins can cause a variety of adverse health effects and pose a serious health threat to both humans and livestock. Some of these toxins are extremely potent.

3.Adverse health effects can be acute poisoning ranging from allergic reactions to severe stomachache and diarrhoea, and even death.

4.Long-term health consequences include effects on the immune, reproductive or nervous systems, and also cancer.

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